Overview[ edit ] Mass production involves making many copies of products, very quickly, using assembly line techniques to send partially complete products to workers who each work on an individual step, rather than having a worker work on a whole product from start to finish.
Float glass Production workers in continuous production commonly work in rotating shifts. Processes are operated continuously for practical as well as economic reasons.
Most of these industries are very capital intensive and the management is therefore very concerned about lost operating time. Shutting down and starting up many continuous processes typically results in off quality product that must be reprocessed or disposed of.
Many tanks, vessels and pipes cannot be left full of materials because of unwanted chemical reactions, settling of suspended materials or crystallization or hardening of materials. Also, cycling temperatures and pressures from starting up and shutting down certain processes line kilns, boilers, blast furnaces, pressure vessels, etc.
In the more complex operations there are sequential shut down and start up procedures that must be carefully followed in order to protect personnel and equipment. Typically a start up or shut down will take several hours.
Continuous processes use process control to automate and control operational variables such as flow rates, tank levels, pressures, temperatures and machine speeds.
These can be operated for one or two shifts if necessary. History[ edit ] The oldest continuous flow processes is the blast furnace for producing pig iron.
The blast furnace is intermittently charged with ore, fuel and flux and intermittently tapped for molten pig iron and slag; however, the chemical reaction of reducing the iron and silicon and later oxidizing the silicon is continuous. Semi-continuous processes, such as machine manufacturing of cigarettes, were called "continuous" when they appeared.
Many truly continuous processes of today were originally batch operations. The Cromford mill ofdesigned by Richard Arkwrightwas the first factory to use a continuous process from raw material to finished product in a series of operations.
The Fourdrinier paper machinepatented inwas one of the earliest of the Industrial Revolution era continuous manufacturing processes. It produced a continuous web of paper that was formed, pressed, dried and reeled up in a roll. Previously paper had been made in individual sheets.
The paper machine influenced other continuous processes such as the continuous rolling of iron and later steel. Early chemical production and oil refining was done in batches until process control was sufficiently developed to allow remote control and automation for continuous processing.
Processes began to operate continuously during the 19th century. By the early 20th century continuous processes were common. Shut-downs[ edit ] In addition to performing maintenance, shut downs are also when process modifications are performed.
These include installing new equipment in the main process flow or tying-in or making provisions to tie-in sub-processes or equipment that can be installed while the process is operating.
Shut-downs of complicated processes may take weeks or months of planning. Typically a series of meetings takes place for co-ordination and planning. These typically involve the various departments such as maintenance, power, engineering, safety and operating units.Batch production is a method used to produce similar items in groups, stage by stage.
In batch production, the product goes through each stage of the process . Batch, mass and continuous production Batch production Batch production is a technique in manufacturing wherein the product is made using a series of different stages and workstations.
It is one of the three main production methods, along with flow production and job production. Types of Processes. We introduced the product-process matrix and four types of processes in Chapter projects, batch production, mass production, and continuous webkandii.com us look at them more closely here and explore the implications of process choice for a firm.
Mass production is the production of goods at scale typically using a production line. It differs from other forms of production in that all steps in the production process are run concurrently and continuously.
Batch Production Batch Production is a way of creating items in bulk. In batch production, general-purpose equipment and methods are commonly used to produce small quantities of items that will be made and sold for a limited time only.
Continuous production is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption. Continuous production is called a continuous process or a continuous flow process because the materials, either dry bulk or fluids that are being processed are continuously in motion, undergoing chemical reactions or.