Jump to navigation Jump to search Eternal September or the September that never ended  is Usenet slang for a period beginning in September  the month that Internet service provider America Online AOL began offering Usenet access to its many users, overwhelming the existing culture for online forums.
For years he had been searching for the origin of the AIDS epidemic. He was a primate researcher who had been one of the first to trace a virus in monkeys that was remarkably similar to HIV.
Later, during field trips to West Africa, Marx had What caused the influx of aids convinced the simian virus had been crossing the species barrier to humans for centuries.
But for the past few years he had been trying to figure out why the AIDS epidemic had only erupted in the middle of the 20th century. As the flight to New Orleans wore on, Marx and Drucker began to talk about the injection campaigns that had rolled through Africa during the s, a period of swashbuckling medical optimism when the World Health Organization and other relief agencies launched massive programs to eradicate disease.
The two men knew that the reuse of needles during those campaigns certainly could have spread HIV from patient to patient. But could the contaminated needles themselves actually have transformed the relatively harmless simian virus into a deadly killer that has claimed the lives of more than 20 million people?
It was a terrible question because it raised the chilling possibility that one of the most devastating epidemics in history had been inadvertently caused by an intervention of modern medicine.
But Marx and Drucker were not the only ones to raise that question - and the hypothesis they would eventually develop would never be as controversial as a rival theory being advanced by a former BBC reporter named Edward Hooper.
He reviewed thousands of pages of medical records, scientific papers and government documents, and he conducted more than interviews in Africa, Europe and the United States. A literature major in college, Hooper taught himself molecular biology, virology, geography, primatology and other disciplines.
He analyzed virtually every plausible theory about the origin of the AIDS epidemic. And the more he learned, the more he came to believe the AIDS epidemic had been caused by an oral polio vaccine given to hundreds of thousands of people in Central Africa in the late s.
The vaccine had been developed by acclaimed virologist Hilary Koprowski, director of the Wistar Institute of Philadelphia, and Hooper believed monkey kidney tissue used to grow the vaccine may have been contaminated with a simian virus genetically related to HIV. Koprowski and other Wistar officials insisted the chimpanzees at Camp Lindi were used only to test the safety and efficacy of the vaccine.
They said the polio vaccine was produced in kidney tissue taken from Asian macaque monkeys only - not chimpanzees. But Hooper found evidence that some Camp Lindi chimpanzees were killed and their kidneys sent to the Wistar laboratories in Philadelphia and possibly Belgium, where the vaccines used in Africa were apparently made.
From records and interviews, Hooper located the rural villages where the Wistar vaccine had been administered between and in former Belgian colonies now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi.
Then he screened the records of HIV-positive blood samples collected in Africa before He found that 47 of the 52 HIV-positive blood samples came from villages where the Wistar vaccine was administered. And all the samples were taken within miles of vaccination sites, including several not far from the Ugandan village along Lake Victoria where a decade earlier dying villagers first told him about a mysterious disease they called "slim.
But as far as Hooper was concerned, he had made a case that could no longer be ignored. Beatrice Hahn and her colleagues at the University of Alabama carefully studied the viruses they found in blood samples taken from four chimpanzees.
Three of the chimpanzees were from a subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes found in the West African nations of Cameroon and Gabon. Their findings, published in Nature, provided the closest link so far between HIV-1 and what they claimed was probably its primate source - West African chimpanzees.
He could not have found a more respected voice. In his book, Hooper had not only presented a significant body of indirect evidence in support of the contaminated vaccine theory, he had also analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of virtually every other theory or avenue of research attempting to explain how the AIDS epidemic started.
It was a carefully researched and exhaustive undertaking, particularly for a nonscientist. It is 1, pages long.
The footnotes alone take up pages. The book drew widespread media attention. The Los Angeles Times called it "a cautionary tale for researchers.The worldwide AIDS epidemic is caused by two distinct viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2,that experts believe crossed the species barrier to humans from two different species of African monkeys.
SIV: Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Researchers first isolate SIV in after the virus infects and kills Asian monkeys in U.S.
research labs. But after a long, hard road and a lot of work, my sons did learn to speak — not always perfectly, but they could communicate.
They can, with help, attend regular school.
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Latest environmental news, features and updates. Pictures, video and more. Eternal September or the September that never ended is Usenet slang for a period beginning in September , the month that Internet service provider America Online (AOL) began offering Usenet access to its many users, overwhelming the existing culture for online forums..
Before then, Usenet was largely restricted to colleges and universities. Every September, a large number of incoming. HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa.
Although the continent is home to about percent of the world's population, more than two-thirds of the total infected worldwide – some 35 million people – were Africans, of whom 15 million have already died. Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounted for an estimated 69 percent of all people living with HIV.